In vivo antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss extract and its components, carvacrol, and thymol, against colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a pneumonic BALB/c mouse model.
J Cell Biochem. 2019 Jul 24. Epub 2019 Jul 24. PMID: 31338900
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial infections. Various resistance mechanisms of A. baumannii against antibiotics have transformed it into a successful nosocomial pathogen. Because of the limited number of available antibiotics, we used a medicinal plant with an antibacterial effect. Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZMB) extract and its components were used for the treatment of pneumonic mice infected with A. baumannii. The biological effects of this extract and the regulation of the outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene were used in a mouse model.
METHODS: A pneumonic mouse model was prepared using clinical and standard strains (1.5 × 10 colony-forming units/mL) of A. baumannii. BALB/c mice groups were treated with a ZMB extract, carvacrol, thymol, and sensitive antibiotics. The lung tissues of the treated mice were cultured for 5 days and each day, bacterial clearance and the ompA gene expression were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: In the lung tissue culture of pneumonic mice infected with standard or clinical isolate, no colony was detected when treated with the ZMB extract after 2 and 3 days (P < 0.01), respectively. In the carvacrol-treated group, bacterial clearance was seen at day 4 and day 5 (P < 0.05). Bacterial clearance was seen 5 days after treatment with thymol and imipenem and 6 days after ampicillin/sulbactam treatment. The regulation of ompA gene was significantly decreased in this order: ZMB extract, carvacrol, thymol, imipenem, and ampicillin/sulbactam.
DISCUSSION: The ZMB extract had a potent bactericidal effect against A. baumannii that could downregulate the ompA gene. ZBM extract and carvacrol could be novel therapeutic agents for antibiotic-resistant A. baumannii.