Wogonin induces differentiation and cell cycle arrest in human leukemia cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Wogonin induced differentiation and G1 phase arrest of human U-937 leukemia cells via PKCdelta phosphorylation.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Sep 4;591(1-3):7-12. Epub 2008 Jun 12. PMID: 18577379
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and intervention, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.
Wogonin, a natural monoflavonoid, has been shown to have tumor therapeutic potential in vitro and in vivo. Recently many studies have focused on the induction of apoptosis of tumor cells by wogonin. In this study, we found that wogonin could induce differentiation and G1 phase arrest of human U-937 leukemia cells. The growth of U-937 cells incubated with wogonin was inhibited in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. After treatment with wogonin, U-937 cells exhibited the characteristics of mature granulocytes, such as increased cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio, enhanced prominence of cytoplasmic granules, membrane ruffling, a higher NBT-reducing ability, and an increased expression of CD11b. Moreover, wogonin could induce G1 phase arrest and influenced the expression of associated proteins. For example, the expression of phorsphorylated protein kinase C (PKC) delta, p21 increased, while that of cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4, p-Rb decreased. The upregulation of p21 could be reversed by rottlerin, an inhibitor of PKCdelta. Taken together, wogonin induced U-937 cells to undergo granulocytic differentiation and G1 phase arrest via PKCdelta phosphorylation-induced upregulation of p21 proteins.