In vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity of dichloromethane fraction of Triticum aestivum sprouts.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Dec ;96:120-128. Epub 2017 Sep 30. PMID: 28972884
Triticum aestivum sprouts (TA) contain significant amounts of chlorophyll, minerals, enzymes, and other functional entities. Furthermore, TA extracts have been shown to possess anti-obesity, anti-diabetic and hepatoprotective effects and are believed to help blood flow, digestion, and general detoxification of the body. In this study, the mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of a dichloromethane fraction of TA (TDF) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro study was done by examining cancer cells growth, morphological changes, cell cycles, expressions of death receptors and apoptosis-linked proteins in wide range of human cancer cell lines. To investigate the effect of TDF in vivo, C57BL/6 mice were injected with B16 melanoma cells and orally administered TDF. TDF markedly inhibited cancer cell growth and induced cellular morphological alterations, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced the expressions of death receptors (DR)-4, 5, and 6 in cell lines. In addition, TDF regulated the expressions mitochondrial apoptosis-linked proteins and induced caspase-dependent cell death. It also significantly enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, but not p38, whereas inhibited the activation of NF-κB in cancer cells. In our mouse model, TDF significantly suppressed B16 melanoma growth, to an extent similar to cisplatin (reference control) and augmented immunomodulatory cytokines. In brief, this study presents the mechanism responsible for the anti-cancer effects of TDF in vitro and in vivo.