Vitamin D upregulates the expression of GDF-15 in prostate cancers driven by inflammation. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Reduced expression of GDF-15 is associated with atrophic inflammatory lesions of the prostate.
Prostate. 2014 Oct 18. Epub 2014 Oct 18. PMID: 25327758
James R Lambert
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic prostatic inflammation may lead to prostate cancer development. Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is highly expressed in the prostate and has been associated with inflammation and tumorigenesis.
METHODS: To examine the relationship between GDF-15 and prostatic inflammation, GDF-15 expression was measured by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in human prostatectomy specimens containing inflammation. The relationship between GDF-15 and specific inflammatory cells was determined using non-biased computer image analysis. To provide insight into a potential suppressive role for GDF-15 in inflammation, activation of inflammatory mediator nuclear factor of kappa B (NFκB) was measured in PC3 cells.
RESULTS: GDF-15 expression in luminal epithelial cells was decreased with increasing inflammation severity, suggesting an inverse association between GDF-15 and inflammation. Quantification of IHC staining by image analysis for GDF-15 and inflammatory cell markers revealed an inverse correlation between GDF-15 and CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD68+, and inos+ leukocytes. GDF-15 suppressed NFκB activity in luciferase reporter assays. Expression of the NFκB target, interleukin 8 (IL-8), was downregulated by GDF-15.
CONCLUSIONS: The inverse relationship between GDF-15 and inflammation demonstrates a novel expression pattern for GDF-15 in the human prostate and suppression of NFκB activity may shed light on a potential mechanism for this inverse correlation. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.