γ-Tocotrienol prevents 5-FU-induced reactive oxygen species production in human oral keratinocytes through the stabilization of 5-FU-induced activation of Nrf2.
Int J Oncol. 2015 Apr ;46(4):1453-60. Epub 2015 Jan 26. PMID: 25625649
UNLABELLED: Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is a common adverse event in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, and is initiated through a variety of mechanisms, including the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we examined the preventive effect ofγ-tocotrienol on the 5-FU-induced ROS production in human oral keratinocytes (RT7). We treated RT7 cells with 5-FU and γ-tocotrienol at concentrations of 10 µg/ml and 10 nM, respectively. When cells were treated with 5-FU alone, significant growth inhibition was observed as compared to untreatedcells. This inhibition was, in part, due to the ROS gene-rated by 5-FU treatment, because N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, significantly ameliorated the growth of RT7 cells. γ-tocotrienol showed no cytotoxic effect on the growth of RT7 cells. Simultaneous treatment of cells with these agents resulted in the significant recovery of cell growth, owing to the suppression of ROS generation by γ-tocotrienol. Whereas 5-FU stimulated the expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein in the nucleus up to 12 h after treatment of RT7 cells, γ-tocotrienol had no obvious effect on the expression of nuclear Nrf2 protein. Of note, the combined treatment with both agents stabilized the 5-FU-induced nuclear Nrf2 protein expression until 24 h after treatment. In addition, expression of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1), was significantly augmented by treatment of cells with both agents. These findings suggest thatγ-tocotrienol could prevent 5-FU-induced ROS generation by stabilizing Nrf2 activation, thereby leading to ROS detoxification and cell survival in human oral keratinocytes.