γ-tocotrienol induced upregulation of A20 zinc finger protein. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Vitamin Eγ-Tocotrienol Inhibits Cytokine-Stimulated NF-κB Activation by Induction of Anti-Inflammatory A20 via Stress Adaptive Response Due to Modulation of Sphingolipids.
J Immunol. 2015 May 22. Epub 2015 May 22. PMID: 26002975
NF-κB plays a central role in pathogenesis of inflammation and cancer. Many phytochemicals, including γ-tocotrienol (γTE), a natural form of vitamin E, have been shown to inhibit NF-κB activation, but the underlying mechanism has not been identified. In this study, we show that γTE inhibited cytokine-triggered activation of NF-κB and its upstream regulator TGF-β-activated kinase-1 in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. In these cells, γTE induced upregulation of A20, an inhibitor of NF-κB. Knockout of A20 partially diminished γTE's anti-NF-κB effect, but γTE increased another NF-κB inhibitor, Cezanne, in A20(-/-) cells. In search of the reason for A20 upregulation, we found that γTE treatment increased phosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2, IκBα, and JNK, indicating induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that γTE modulated sphingolipids, including enhancement of intracellular dihydroceramides, sphingoid bases in de novo synthesis of the sphingolipid pathway. Chemical inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthesis partially reversed γTE's induction ofA20 and the anti-NF-κB effect. The importance of dihydroceramide increase is further supported by the observation that C8-dihydroceramide mimicked γTE in upregulating A20, enhancing endoplasmic reticulum stress, and attenuating TNF-triggered NF-κB activation. Our study identifies a novel anti-NF-κB mechanism where A20 is induced by stress-induced adaptive response as a result of modulation of sphingolipids, and it demonstrates an immunomodulatory role of dihydrocermides.