In vitro neuroprotective effects of naringenin nanoemulsion againstβ-amyloid toxicity through the regulation of amyloidogenesis and tau phosphorylation.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Jul 3 ;118(Pt A):1211-1219. Epub 2018 Jul 3. PMID: 30001606
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an increasingly prevalent neurological disorder of the central nervous system. There is growing evidence that amyloidogenesis is a pathological hallmark for AD; this leads to the formation of senile plaques. Naringenin is a bioflavonoid which has neuroprotective effects through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its clinical usage is limited due to its inefficient transport across biological membranes. In the present study, a naringenin nanoemulsion was prepared and its neuroprotective effects were tested againstβ-amyloid induced neurotoxicity in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). The optimised, naringenin-loaded nanoemulsion formulation had a droplet size of 113.83 ± 3.35 nm and around 50 nm, as assessed respectively by photon correlation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy.The preparation showed a low polydispersity index (0.312 ± 0.003), a high zeta potential (12.4 ± 1.05) and a high percentage transmittance (97.01%). The neuroprotective activity of naringenin nanoemulsions was determined by assessing their ability to protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against the neurotoxic effect of beta amyloid (Aβ). Aβ-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), amyloid precursor protein (APP), β-secretase (BACE), total tau and phosphorylated tau (pT231) was also determined. The naringenin loaded nanoemulsion significantly alleviated the direct neurotoxic effects of Aβ on SH-SY5Y cells; this was associated with a down-regulation of APP and BACE expression, indicating reduced amyloidogenesis. Furthermore, it decreased the levels of phosphorylated tau in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Aβ. These results suggest that a naringenin-loaded nanoemulsion could be a promising agent for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.