These results demonstrate that the anti-invasive effect of apigenin in MDA-MB-231 cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Antitumor and Anti-Invasive Effect of Apigenin on Human Breast Carcinoma through Suppression of IL-6 Expression.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jun 27 ;20(13). Epub 2019 Jun 27. PMID: 31252615
Hwan Hee Lee
Interleukin (IL)-6 plays a crucial role in the progression, invasion, and metastasis of breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 is known for its aggressive metastasis. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical process in cancer metastasis. The positive correlation between IL-6 and EMT in tumor microenvironment is reported. We found significantly upregulated IL-6 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. A blockade of IL-6 expression decreased levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAkt), and cell cycle-related molecules, including cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins in MDA-MB-231 cells. A short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated blockade of IL-6 expression inhibited migration and N-cadherin expression and induced E-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. Growth rate was slower for the tumors derived from IL-6 shRNA-treated MDA-MB-231 cells than for those derived from control shRNA-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. The expression of pSTAT3, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK), PI3K, pAkt, snail, vimentin, and N-cadherin was significantly lower in tumors from IL-6 shRNA-treated MDA-MB cells. In addition, apigenin treatment significantly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231-derived xenograft tumors along with the protein expressions of pSTAT3, pERK, IL-6, PI3K, pAkt, and N-cadherin. Our results demonstrate that the anti-invasive effect of apigenin in MDA-MB-231-derived xenograft tumors is mediated by the inhibition of IL-6-linked downstream signaling pathway.