In Vitro Anticancer Properties of Table Grape Powder Extract (GPE) in Prostate Cancer.
Nutrients. 2018 Nov 20 ;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 20. PMID: 30463302
Although the link between diet and cancer is complex, epidemiological data confirm that diet is a risk factor for prostate cancer and indicate a reduced prostate cancer incidence associated with a diet rich in vegetables and fruits. Because of the known protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE) against prostate cancer, we evaluated the effects of grape powder extract (GPE) on cell viability, proliferation, and metastatic capability. Importantly, we explored the possible novel mechanism of GPE through metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) downregulation in prostate cancer, since our previous studies indicated resveratrol (Res)- and pterostilbene (Pter)-induced MTA1-mediated anticancer activities in prostate cancer. We found that GPE inhibited the cell viability and growth of prostate cancer cells only at high 100μg/mL concentrations. However, at low 1.5⁻15 μg/mL concentrations, GPE significantly reduced the colony formation and wound healing capabilities of both DU145 and PC3M cells. Moreover, we found that GPE inhibited MTA1 in a dose-dependent manner in these cells, albeit with considerably less potency than Res and Pter. These results indicate that stilbenes such as Res and Pter specifically and potently inhibit MTA1 and MTA1-associated proteins compared to GPE, which contains low concentrations of Res and mainly consists of other flavonoids and anthocyanidins. Our findings support continued interest in GPE as a chemopreventive and anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer but also emphasize the unique and specific properties of stilbenes on MTA1-mediated anticancer effects on prostate cancer.