Effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos fruit and leaf on glycemic, insulinemic and lipidemic status of type 2 diabetic model rats.
J Complement Integr Med. 2017 Mar 9 ;14(2). PMID: 28284036
Sonchita R Mudi
BackgroundAegle marmelos is a popular fruit plant in the Indian subcontinent, various parts of which are traditionally used against various illnesses including diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the underlying mechanisms of the antidiabetic effects of the plant are not clear, especially in type 2 DM. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extracts of A. marmelos fruits (AMFE) and leaves (AMLE) on glycemic, lipidemic, insulinemic, insulin resistance andβ-cell functional status of type 2 diabetic model rats. Methods An interventional study was designed using 20 type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 DM was induced in Long Evans rats by a single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (90 mg/kg body weight) to 48 h old pups. Three months after inductionof diabetes, the rats were divided into three independent groups: water-treated control group (n=6), AMLE-treated group (n=7) and AMFE-treated group (n=7). The rats were fed with extracts or water for 21 consecutive days and blood samples were collected at days 0 and 21 after an overnight fast. Data were expressed as mean±SD and analyzed by paired t-test or ANOVA as appropriate. Results There were significantly lower blood glucose values in AMLE and AMFE groups at Endpoint compared to Baseline (mmol/l, mean±SD, Baseline vs. Endpoint, 7.04±1.0 vs. 6.06±0.92; p=0.032 and 7.04±0.97 vs. 5.87±0.93; p=0.047). There were also significantly lower serum insulin levels in AMLE and AMFE groups at Endpoint compared to Baseline (µIU/mL, mean±SD, Baseline vs. Endpoint, 14.02±5.48 vs. 7.57±2.90; p=0.026 and 11.54±4.83 vs. 6.58±4.36; p=0.008). Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantlyimproved both in AMLE and AMFE groups at Endpoint compared to Baseline (mean±SD, Baseline vs. Endpoint, 4.22±1.68 vs. 2.05±0.90; p=0.021 and 3.69±1.79 vs. 1.69±1.61; p=0.013). However, β-cell function or lipid profile did not show any significant alteration at Endpoint compared to Baseline inAMLE and AMFE groups. Conclusions Aqueous extracts of A. marmelos leaf and fruit have hypoglycemic property which seem to be mediated by lowering of insulin resistance. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of the extracts of A. marmelos in human type 2 DM and provides strong impetus for further studies.