Prostate cancer vs hyperplasia: relationships with prostatic and adipose tissue fatty acid composition.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002 May-Jun;66(5-6):467-77. PMID: 12144866
Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Nutrition, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Iraklion, Crete, Greece.
The objective of the present study was to study whether adipose tissue and prostatic tissue fatty acid composition differentiates between prostate cancer and benign hyperplasia patients. In addition, the present investigation aimed at exploring the extent to which prostatic tissue fatty acid composition differentiates between prostate-confined cancer and extraprostatic disease including possible metastasis. The subjects were 71 male patients from the island of Crete. Half the patients (n=35) had been diagnosed with benign hyperplasia of the prostate, half with prostatic malignancy (n=36). Patients were examined at the outpatient clinic of the urology unit, University Hospital, Medical School, University of Crete. Relative to benign hyperplasia patients, cancer patients had elevated adipose tissue saturated and reduced monounsaturated fatty acid levels. Cancer patients had reduced prostate tissue stearic to oleic acid ratios and stearic acid levels as opposed to hyperplasia patients. The most pronounced difference between cancer patients and hyperplasia patients was a 3-fold elevated prostatic palmitoleic acid in the former group. Relative to benign hyperplasia patients, cancer patients had reduced prostate tissue arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid levels. Finally, there was a significantly reduced omega-3/omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in the prostate cancer patient as opposed to the benign hyperplasia group. The pronounced elevations in prostatic tissue palmitoleic acid in cancer patients highlight a possible role of this fatty acid in neoplastic processes. The decreased arachidonic acid levels in cancer patients possibly stem from enhanced metabolism of arachidonic acid via lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways, and the formation of derivatives such as 5-HETE, 15-HETE, 12(S)-HETE and PGE(2).