Targeted delivery of ginsenoside compound K using TPGS/PEG-PCL mixed micelles for effective treatment of lung cancer.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2017 ;12:7653-7667. Epub 2017 Oct 17. PMID: 29089761
Ginsenoside compound K (CK) is one of the effective ingredients in antitumor composition of ginsenoside. However, the poor water solubility and significant efflux have limited the widespread clinical use of CK. In this study, preparation of novel CK-loaded d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1,000 succinate/poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) mixed micelles (CK-M) is discussed to solve the above problems. Particle size, zeta potential, and morphology were characterized using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. CK-M are spherical shaped with an average particle size of 53.07±1.31 nm with high drug loading of 11.19%±0.87% and entrapment efficiency of 94.60%±1.45%. Water solubility of CK was improved to 3.78±0.09 mg/mL, which was ~107.35 times higher than free CK. A549 and PC-9 cells were used to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake. ICvalues of CK-M in A549 and PC-9 cells (24 h) were 25.43±2.18 and 18.35±1.90 μg/mL, respectively. Enhanced cellular uptake of CK-M was observed in both cells. Moreover, CK-M promoted tumor cell apoptosis, inhibited tumor cell invasion, metastasis, and efflux through regulation of Bax, Bcl-2, matrix metalloproteinase-2, Caspase-3, and P-glycoprotein. In vivo imaging indicated that CK-M has excellent tumor targeting effect within 24 h, and the relative tumor inhibition rate of CK-M was 52.04%±4.62% compared with control group (<0.01). Thus, CK-M could be an appropriate delivery agent for enhanced solubility and antitumor effect of CK.