Standard chemoradiation for glioblastoma results in progressive brain volume loss.
Neurology. 2015 Aug 25 ;85(8):683-91. Epub 2015 Jul 24. PMID: 26208964
Morgan J Prust
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of chemotherapy and cranial irradiation on normal brain tissue using in vivo neuroimaging in patients with glioblastoma.
METHODS: We used longitudinal MRI to monitor structural brain changes during standard treatment in patients newly diagnosed with glioblastoma. We assessed volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging measures in 14 patients receiving 6 weeks of chemoradiation, followed by up to 6 months of temozolomide chemotherapy alone. We examined changes in whole brain, gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), anterior lateral ventricle, and hippocampal volumes. Normal-appearing GM, WM, and hippocampal analyses were conducted within the hemisphere of lowest/absent tumor burden. We examined diffusion tensor imaging measures within the subventricular zone.
RESULTS: Whole brain (F = 2.41; p = 0.016) and GM (F = 2.13; p = 0.036) volume decreased during treatment, without significant WM volume change. Anterior lateral ventricle volume increased significantly (F = 65.51; p<0.001). In participants analyzed beyond 23 weeks, mean ventricular volume increased by 42.2% (SE: 8.8%; t = 4.94; p<0.005). Apparent diffusion coefficient increased within the subventricular zone (F = 7.028; p<0.001). No significant changes were identified in hippocampal volume.
CONCLUSIONS: We present evidence of significant and progressive treatment-associated structural brain changes in patients with glioblastoma treated with standard chemoradiation. Future studies using longitudinal neuropsychological evaluation are needed to characterize the functional consequences of these structural changes.