Scientific validation of the antimicrobial and antiproliferative potential of Berberis aristata DC root bark, its phytoconstituents and their biosafety.
AMB Express. 2019 Sep 11 ;9(1):143. Epub 2019 Sep 11. PMID: 31512002
Berberis aristata is an important part of traditional healing system from more than 2500 years. The aqueous extract of Berberis aristata root bark displayed broad spectrum activity against 13 test pathogens, ranging from 12 to 25 mm. In classical optimization, 15% concentration prepared at 40 °C for 40 min was optimal and thermostable. Statistical optimization enhanced the activity by 1.13-1.30-folds. Ethyl acetate was the best organic solvent to elute out the potential compound responsible for antimicrobial activity. Diterpenes were the most abundant phytoconstituent (15.3%) and showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity ranging from 16.66 to 42.66 mm. Ethyl acetate extract displayed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (0.05-1 mg/mL), followed by diterpenes (0.05-5 mg/mL) and flavonoids (0.05-10 mg/mL). The test extracts were microbicidal in nature and showed a prolonged post antibiotic effect ranging from 2 to 8 h. They were found to be biosafe as perAmes and MTT assay. The in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of diterpenes against L20B, RD and Hep 2 cell lines revealed its ICranging from 245 to 473 µg/mL. Acute oral toxicity of diterpenes on Swiss albino mice did not show any changes in behavioral pattern, body weight, biochemical parameters as well as organs' architecture. The study thus indicates B. aristata could be a potential candidate for development of potent drug owing to its antimicrobial potential and biosafe profile.