This review highlights the distribution of mangiferin in plants. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Mangiferin: A review of sources and interventions for biological activities.
Biofactors. 2016 Sep 10 ;42(5):504-514. Epub 2016 Sep 23. PMID: 27658353
Xanthones are naturally synthesized in various biological systems such as plants, lichens, and fungi and are stored as by-products. In addition to taxonomic significance they are also important in the treatment/management of a number of human disorders. Mangiferin and its derived lead molecule have never qualified for use in a clinical trial despite a number of pharmacological studies that have proven its effectiveness as an antioxidant, analgesic, antidiabetic, antiproliferative, chemopreventive, radioprotective, cardiotonic, immunomodulatory, and diuretic. For centuries in the traditional practice of medicine in India and China the use of plants containing mangiferin has been a major component for disease management and health benefits. While it resembles biflavones, the C-glucosyl xanthone (mangiferin) has great nutritional and medicinal significance due to its unique structural characteristics. The C-glycoside link of mangiferin, mimicked to nucleophilic phloroglucinol substitution, facilitates its bioavailability and also is responsible for its antioxidant properties. Researchers have also utilized its xanthonic framework for both pharmacophoric backbone and for its use as a substitution group for synthesis and prospects. To date more than 500 derivatives using about 80 reactions have been generated. These reactions include: lipid peroxidation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, methylation, fermentation, deglycosylation, hydrolysis, polymerization, sulfation, acylation, etherification, peroxidation among others. Multiple studies on efficacy and safety have increased the global demand of mangiferin-based food supplements. This review highlights the distribution of mangiferin in plants, its isolation, and assay methods applicable to different sample matrices. In addition we include updates on various strategies and derived products intended for designated pharmacological actions.© 2016 BioFactors, 42(5):504-514, 2016.