Toxicity and Detoxification Mechanism of Black Pepper and Its Major Constituent in Controlling Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Curculionidae: Coleoptera).
Neotrop Entomol. 2017 Mar 21. Epub 2017 Mar 21. PMID: 28326461
The survival, feeding response, and detoxification mechanism of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, a key pest responsible for destruction of date palm, was examined with different extracts of Piper nigrum and its major constituent (piperine) identified by GC-MS. In the present study, toxicity of different extracts of black pepper was evaluated by incorporating diffferent doses of extracts into the artificial diet of red palm weevil larvae. All extracts showed dose-dependent insecticidal activity to the tested eighth-instar red palm weevil larvae. Among all the extracts, maximum larvicidal activity was exhibited by chloroform (LD50 = 342.62 mg/l), followed by dichloromethane (LD50 = 357.78 mg/l), acetone (LD50 = 372.57 mg/l), and ethanol (LD50 = 408.88 mg/l). However, piperine, a major constituent of all black pepper extracts identified by GC-MS in the present work, was found to be the most potent treatment exhibiting the least LD50 (219.88 mg/l). In addition, nutritional indices evaluated by calculating the efficiency of the conversion of ingested food (ECI) and digested food (ECD) at the same dose (219.88 mg/l) showed that there was maximum reduction in the ECI (49.90%) and ECD (62.21%) index of larvae fed diets incorporated with piperine. Larvae that were fed diets incorporated with different black pepper extracts experienced increases in the expression of detoxification genes (glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450), and this upregulation in detoxification genes (glutathione S-transferase,cytochrome P450 and esterase) was tremendously high in larvae fed diets incorporated with piperine. Results suggest that piperine is a promising bio-pesticide agent for the control of R. ferrugineus Olivier.