The results of this study support the existing data and the empirical uses of P. major. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Effects ofExtracts and Its Chemical Compounds on Proliferation of Cancer Cells and Cytokines Production of Lipopolysaccharide-activated THP-1 Macrophages.
Pharmacogn Mag. 2017 Jul-Sep;13(51):393-399. Epub 2017 Jul 19. PMID: 28839362
BACKGROUND: has been reported to have anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, which plant parts are more suitable as starting materials has not been explored.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antiproliferative activity ofextracts against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLaS3, A549, and KB cancer cell lines as well as their effects on inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and interferon [IFN]-γ) production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 macrophages.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanol and aqueous extracts offrom different plant parts and its chemical compounds, i.e., ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid (OA), and aucubin were tested in this experiment.
RESULTS: Methanol and aqueous extracts ofseeds exhibited the greatest antiproliferative activity. The methanol extracts of seeds also demonstrated the highest inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ production. Interestingly, the roots, which were commonly discarded, exhibited comparable activities to those of leaves and petioles. Furthermore, UA exhibited stronger activities than OA and aucubin.
CONCLUSIONS: The seeds are being proposed as the main source for further development of anticancer and anti-inflammatory products, whereas the roots could be included in the preparation ofderived products with respect to anti-inflammatory.
SUMMARY: Amongst the parts of, seeds exhibited the greatest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLaS3, A549, and KB cell lines as well as the highest inhibition on TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ productionThe roots, which were commonly discarded, exhibited comparable antiproliferative and cytokines inhibition activities to those of leaves and petiolesUrsolic acid, a chemical compound of, exhibited stronger activities than oleanolic acid and aucubinThe seeds are being proposed as the main source for further development of anticancer and anti inflammatory products, whereas the roots could be included in the preparation ofderived products with respect to anti inflammatory.TNF: Tumor Necrosis Factor; IL: Interleukin; IFN: Interferon; HPTLC: High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography; UA: Ursolic Acid; OA: Oleanolic Acid; AUC: Aucubin.