The effects of resistance training on bone mineral density and bone quality in type 2 diabetic rats.
Physiol Rep. 2019 Mar ;7(6):e14046. PMID: 30916457
Resistance training (RT) has been known to be effective in maintaining and improving bone strength, which is based on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone quality. However, it is not clear whether RT is effective in improving bone strength in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who have a high risk of fracture. Therefore, we tested the effects of a 6-week RT regimen using percutaneous electrical stimulation in T2DM model rats, male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF), and its control, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO). After 6 weeks of RT, tibial BMD in RT legs was significantly higher than that in control (CON) legs in both groups. In diaphyseal cortical bone, bone area/tissue area, and cortical thickness was significantly increased in RT legs compared with CON legs in both groups. Cortical porosity was highly observedin OLETF compared with LETO, but RT improved cortical porosity in both groups. Interestingly, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and trabecular space as well as BMD and bone volume/tissue volume in proximal tibial metaphyseal trabecular bone were significantly improved in RT legs compared withCON legs in both groups. In contrast, connectivity density and structural model index were not affected by RT. These results indicate that the 6-week RT regimen effectively increased BMD and improved bone quality in T2DM model rats as well as control rats. Therefore, RT may have the potential to improve bone strength and reduce fracture risk, even in patients with T2DM.