Efficacy of red propolis hydro-alcoholic extract in controlling Streptococcus mutans biofilm build-up and dental enamel demineralization.
Arch Oral Biol. 2018 May 23 ;93:56-65. Epub 2018 May 23. PMID: 29807235
Mariana Leonel Martins
OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of a red propolis hydro-alcoholic extract (RP) in controlling Streptococcus mutans biofilm colonization was evaluated. The effect of RP on dental demineralization was also investigated.
METHODS: Chemical composition was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Minimum Inhibitory and Bactericidal Concentration (MIC and MBC, respectively) were investigated against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). The cytotoxic potential of 3% RP in oral fibroblasts was observed after 1 and 3 min. Bovine dental enamel blocks (N = 24) were used for S. mutans biofilm formation (48 h), simulating 'feast or famine' episodes. Blocks/biofilms were exposed 2×/day, for 3 days, to a cariogenic challenge with sucrose 10% (5 min) and treated (1 min) with: 0.85% saline solution (negative control), 0.12% Chlorhexidine (CHX, positive control for biofilm colonization), 0.05% Sodium Fluoride (NaF, positive control to avoid demineralization) and 3% RP. Biofilms were assessed for viability (CFU/mL), and to observe the concentration of soluble and insoluble extracellular polysaccharides(SEPS and IEPS). Dental demineralization was assessed by the percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL) and through polarized light microscopy (PLM).
RESULTS: The RP presented 4.0 pH and ºBrix = 4.8. The p-coumaric acid (17.2 μg/mL) and luteolin (15.23 μg/mL) were the largest contents of phenolic acids and flavonoids, respectively. MIC and MBC of RP were 293 μg/mL and 1172 μg/mL, respectively. The 3% RP showed 43% of viably cells after 1 min. Lower number (p < 0.05) of viable bacteria (CFU/mL) was observed after CHX (1.8 × 10) followed by RP (1.8 × 10) treatments. The lowest concentration (μg/CFU) of SEPS (12.6) and IEPS (25.9) was observed in CHX (p < 0.05) followed by RP (17.1 and 54.3), and both differed from the negative control (34.4 and 63.9) (p < 0.05). Considering the %SHL, all groups differed statistically (p < 0.05) from the negative control (46.6%); but NaF (13.9%), CHX (20.1%) and RP (20.7%) did not differ among them (p > 0.05). After all treatments, suggestive areas of caries lesions were observed by PLM, which were lower for CHX and NaF.
CONCLUSION: The 3% RP reduced S. mutans colonization, decreased concentration of extracellular polysaccharides and reduced dental enamel demineralization.