Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on hippocampal neuronal injury and neurite outgrowth.
Neural Regen Res. 2014 May 1 ;9(9):943-50. PMID: 25206916
Ginsenoside Rb1 has been reported to exert anti-aging and anti-neurodegenerative effects. In the present study, we investigate whether ginsenoside Rb1 is involved in neurite outgrowth and neuroprotection against damage induced by amyloid beta (25-35) in cultured hippocampal neurons, and explore the underlying mechanisms. Ginsenoside Rb1 significantly increased neurite outgrowth in hippocampal neurons, and increased the expression of phosphorylated-Akt and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. These effects were abrogated by API-2 and PD98059, inhibitors of the signaling proteins Akt and MEK. Additionally, cultured hippocampal neurons were exposed to amyloid beta (25-35) for 30 minutes; ginsenoside Rb1 prevented apoptosis induced by amyloid beta (25-35), and this effect was blocked by API-2 and PD98059. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rb1 significantly reversed the reduction in phosphorylated-Akt and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 levels induced by amyloid beta (25-35), and API-2 neutralized the effect of ginsenoside Rb1. The present results indicate that ginsenoside Rb1 enhances neurite outgrowth and protects against neurotoxicity induced by amyloid beta (25-35) via a mechanism involving Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling.