Punica granatum (pomegranate) leaves extract induces apoptosis through mitochondrial intrinsic pathway and inhibits migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 May ;80:227-35. Epub 2016 Mar 28. PMID: 27133061
Most conventional treatments on non-small cell lung carcinoma always accompany with awful side effects, and the incidence and mortality rates of this cancer are increasing rapidly worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine the anticancer effects of extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) leaves extract (PLE) on the non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, H1299 and mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cell line LL/2 in vitro, and explore its mechanisms of action. Our results have shown that PLE inhibited cell proliferation in non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry (FCM) assay showed that PLE affected H1299 cell survival by arresting cell cycle progression in G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner and inducing apoptosis. Moreover, PLE could also decrease the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔYm), indicating that PLE may induce apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, PLE blocked H1299 cell migration and invasion, and the reduction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression were also observed in vitro. These results suggested that PLE couldbe an effective and safe chemotherapeutic agent in non-small cell lung carcinoma treatment by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and impairing cell migration and invasion.