Piperlongumine restores the balance of autophagy and apoptosis by increasing BCL2 phosphorylation in rotenone-induced Parkinson disease models.
Autophagy. 2018 Feb 13:1-17. Epub 2018 Feb 13. PMID: 29433359
: Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer disease and is caused by genetics, environmental factors and aging, with few treatments currently available. Apoptosis and macroautophagy/autophagy play critical roles in PD pathogenesis; as such, modulating their balance is a potential treatment strategy. BCL2 (B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2) is a key molecule regulating this balance. Piperlongumine (PLG) is an alkaloid extracted from Piper longum L. that has antiinflammatory and anticancer effects. The present study investigated the protective effects of PLG in rotenone-induced PD cell and mouse models. We found that PLG administration (2 and 4 mg/kg) for 4 wk attenuated motor deficits in mice and prevented the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra induced by oral administration of rotenone (10 mg/kg) for 6 wk. PLG improved cell viability and enhanced mitochondrial function in primary neurons and SK-N-SH cells. These protective effects were exerted via inhibition of apoptosis and induction of autophagy through enhancement of BCL2 phosphorylation at Ser70. These results demonstrate that PLG exerts therapeutic effects in a rotenone-induced PD models by restoring the balance between apoptosis and autophagy.
ABBREVIATIONS: 6-OHDA, 6-hydroxydopamine; ACTB, actin, beta; BafA1, bafilomycin A; BAK1, BCL2-antagonist/killer 1; BAX, BCL2-associated X protein; BCL2, B cell leukemia/lymphoma2; BECN1, Beclin 1, autophagy related; CoQ10, coenzyme Q; COX4I1/COX IV, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4I1; CsA, cyclosporine A; ED50, 50% effective dose; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; JC-1, tetraethylbenz-imidazolylcarbocyanine iodide; LC3, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain3; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; l-dopa, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine; MAPK8/JNK1, mitogen-activated protein kinase 8; MMP, mitochondrial membrane potential; mPTP, mitochondrial permeability transition pore; mRFP, monomeric red fluorescent protein; MPTP, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; NFE2L2/NRF2, nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2; PD, Parkinson disease; PLG, piperlongumine; pNA, p-nitroanilide; PI, propidium iodide; PtdIns3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PtdIns3P, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; PTX, paclitaxel; Rap, rapamycin; SQSTM1/p62, sequestosome 1; TH, tyrosine hydroxylase; TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling; WIPI2, WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 2; ZFYVE1/DFCP1, zinc finger, FYVE domain containing 1.