Phytoestrogens in common herbs regulate prostate cancer cell growth in vitro.
Nutr Cancer. 2004;49(2):200-8. PMID: 15489213
Department of Biochemistry and the Missouri University Center for Phytonutrient and Phytochemical Studies, University of Missouri, Columbia 65211, USA.
Prostate cancer is an important public health problem in the United States. Seven phytoestrogens found in common herbal products were screened for estrogen receptor binding and growth inhibition of androgen-insensitive (PC-3) and androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) human prostate tumor cells. In a competitive 3H-estradiol ligand binding assay using mouse uterine cytosol, 2.5 M quercetin, baicalein, genistein, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and curcumin displaced>85% of estradiol binding, whereas apigenin and resveratrol displaced>40%. From growth inhibition studies in LNCaP cells, apigenin and curcumin were the most potent inhibitors of cell growth, and EGCG and baicalein were the least potent. In PC-3 cells, curcumin was the most potent inhibitor of cell growth, and EGCG was the least potent. In both cell lines, significant arrest of the cell cycle in S phase was induced by resveratrol and EGCG and in G2M phase by quercetin, baicalein, apigenin, genistein, and curcumin. Induction of apoptosis was induced by all of the 7 compounds in the 2 cell lines as shown by TUNEL and DNA fragmentation assays. Androgen responsiveness of the cell lines did not correlate with cellular response to the phytoestrogens. In conclusion, these 7 phytoestrogens, through different mechanisms, are effective inhibitors of prostate tumor cell growth.