Physical exercise ameliorates the reduction of neural stem cell, cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in senescent mice induced by D-galactose.
BMC Neurosci. 2014 Oct 31 ;15:116. Epub 2014 Oct 31. PMID: 25359614
Sung Min Nam
BACKGROUND: Aging negatively affects adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and exercise attenuates the age-related reduction in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In the present study, we used senescent mice induced by D-galactose to examine neural stem cells, cell proliferation, and neuronal differentiation with or without exercise treatment. D-galactose (100 mg/kg) was injected to six-week-old C57BL/6 J mice for 6 weeks to induce the senescent model. During these periods, the animals were placed on a treadmill and acclimated to exercise for 1 week. Then treadmill running was conducted for 1 h/day for 5 consecutive days at 10-12 m/min for 5 weeks.
RESULTS: Body weight and food intake did not change significantly after D-galactose administration with/without treadmill exercise, although body weight and food intake was highest after treadmill exercise in adult animals and lowest after treadmill exercise in D-galactose-induced senescent model animals. D-galactose treatment significantly decreased the number of nestin (a neural stem cell marker), Ki67 (a cell proliferation marker), and doublecortin (DCX, a differentiating neuroblast marker) positive cells compared to those in the control group. In contrast, treadmill exercise significantly increased Ki67- and DCX-positive cell numbers in both the vehicle- and D-galactose treated groups. In addition, phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was significantly decreased in the D-galactose treated group, whereas exercise increased their expression in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in both the vehicle- and D-galactose-treated groups.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that treadmill exercise attenuates the D-galactose-induced reduction in neural stem cells, cell proliferation, and neuronal differentiation by enhancing the expression of pCREB and BDNF in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.