Phloretin attenuates allergic airway inflammation and oxidative stress in asthmatic mice. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Phloretin Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Asthmatic Mice.
Front Immunol. 2017 ;8:134. Epub 2017 Feb 13. PMID: 28243240
Phloretin (PT), isolated from the apple tree, was previously demonstrated to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages and anti-adiposity effects in adipocytes. Inflammatory immune cells generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for stimulated severe airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether PT could reduce oxidative stress, airway inflammation, and eosinophil infiltration in asthmatic mice, and ameliorate oxidative and inflammatory responses in tracheal epithelial cells. BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce asthma symptoms. Mice were randomly assigned to the five experimental groups: normal controls; OVA-induced asthmatic mice; and OVA-induced mice injected intraperitoneally with one of the three PT doses (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg). In addition, we treated inflammatory human tracheal epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells) with PT to assess oxidative responses and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We found that PT significantly reduced goblet cell hyperplasia and eosinophil infiltration, which decreased AHR, inflammation, and oxidative responses in the lungs of OVA-sensitized mice. PT also decreased malondialdehyde levels in the lung and reduced Th2 cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Furthermore, PT reduced ROS, proinflammatory cytokines, and eotaxin production in BEAS-2B cells. PT also suppressed monocyte cell adherence to inflammatory BEAS-2B cells. These findings suggested that PT alleviated pathological changes, inflammation, and oxidative stress by inhibiting Th2 cytokine production in asthmatic mice. PT showed therapeutic potential for ameliorating asthma symptoms in the future.