Effects of perillaldehyde on alternations in serum cytokines and depressive-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2014 Jan ;116:1-8. Epub 2013 Nov 4. PMID: 24201050
Perillaldehyde (PAH), a major component of essential oil of Perilla Frutescens, has antidepressant-like effects and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study was designed to determine whether PAH is effective in treating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like behavior in mice and to explore the possible mechanism between its antidepressant-like effect and anti-inflammatory activity. PAH (60 and 120 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) were administered intragastrically once daily for 7 consecutive days. In the 7th day, LPS (0.5mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30 min after drug administration. Blood samples were collected 90 min after LPS injection to evaluate serum interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Behavioral tests were measured 24h after LPS injection. After the behavioral tests the prefrontal cortex was rapidly dissected from the brain of the sacrificed mice, then the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in prefrontal cortex were determined by HPLC-MS, and IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed that a single administration of LPS significantly increased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in both the serum and the prefrontal cortex and decreased 5-HT and NElevels in the prefrontal cortex in mice. Pretreatment with fluoxetine (20mg/kg) or PAH (60 and 120 mg/kg) could effectively reverse the alterations in the concentrations of 5-HT and NE, and attenuate LPS-induced increases in TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Besides, LPS administration increased the immobility time in tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity. Fluoxetine (20mg/kg) or PAH (60 and 120 mg/kg) significantly shortened LPS-induced increases of immobility time in both TST and FST. In conclusion, PAH exhibited significant antidepressant-like effects in mice with LPS-induced depression. The antidepressant activity of PAH might be related to the alteration of monoaminergic responses and the anti-inflammatory effects.