Panax notoginseng inhibits tumor growth through activating macrophage to M1 polarization. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Panax notoginseng Inhibits Tumor Growth through Activating Macrophage to M1 Polarization.
Am J Chin Med. 2018 ;46(6):1369-1385. Epub 2018 Aug 31. PMID: 30168347
Among the herbal ingredients of HangAmDan-B, a medicinal formula that redirects macrophages to become tumoricidal effectors, we found that Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen is the active component responsible for its macrophage-mediated antitumor activity. The water extracted roots of P. notoginseng (PN) did not affect the viability of RAW264.7 murine macrophage-like cells and murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells up to a concentration of 100[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL. However, the transfer of culture media from PN-treated RAW264.7 cells suppressed the growth of LLC cells. The expression of classically activated (M1) markers, such as interleukin (IL)-1[Formula: see text], monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), was increased by PN treatment. The expression of alternatively activated (M2) markers including CD206, IL-10, and [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]-acetylhexosaminidases (YM-1) was reduced by PN treatment in the presence of IL-4. Flow cytometry also revealed that PN drives M1 activation of RAW264.7 cells. The transfer of culture media from PN-treated RAW264.7 cells induced the apoptosis of LLC cells as measured by flow cytometry using Annexin-V staining and western blot analysis for caspase cascade-related proteins. In addition, the results from in vivo tumor allograft model demonstrated that PN reduced both tumor volume and weight. The activation of macrophages toward an M1 phenotype was confirmed in the tumor allograft tumor model. These results collectively show that PN can serve as a potent anticancer agent through reeducation of macrophages toward an M1 phenotype.