Acetaminophen (APAP or N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol) and Acute Liver Failure.
Clin Liver Dis. 2018 05 ;22(2):325-346. Epub 2018 Feb 9. PMID: 29605069
Acetaminophen (APAP) is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF), although the worldwide frequency is variable. APAP hepatotoxicity develops either following intentional overdose or unintentional ingestion (therapeutic misadventure) in the background of several factors, such as concomitant use of alcohol and certain medications that facilitate the formation of reactive and toxic metabolites. Spontaneous survival is more common in APAP-induced ALF compared with non-APAP etiologies. N-acetylcysteine is recommended for all patients with APAP-induced ALF and it reduces mortality. Liver transplantation should be offered early to those who are unlikely to survive based on described prognostic criteria.