Musk exhibits an antidepressant effect an animal model of depression. - GreenMedInfo Summary
The antidepressant effect of musk in an animal model of depression: a histopathological study.
Cell Tissue Res. 2016 Aug 1. Epub 2016 Aug 1. PMID: 27481508
Nasra Naeim Ayuob
Depression is a significant public health concern all over the world, especially in modern communities. This study aims to assess the efficacy of musk in alleviating the behavioral, biochemical and histopathological changes induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in an animal model of depression and to explore the underlying mechanism of this effect. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 10): control, CUMS, CUMS+fluoxetine and CUMS+musk. At the end of the experiment, behavioral tests were administered and serum corticosterone and testosterone levels were assessed. Surface markers, proteins and gene expressions of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus were assessed. The immunoexpression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, Ki67 and caspase-3 was also assessed. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Musk alleviated the behavioral changes caused by CUMS and reduced elevated corticosterone levels. It reduced CUMS-induced neuronal atrophy in the CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and restored astrocytes. Musk reduced the neuro- and glial apoptosis observed in stressed mice in a manner comparable to that of fluoxetine. Musk induced these effects through up-regulating both BDNF and GR gene and protein expressions. Musk has an antidepressant-like effect in an animal model of depression, so it is advisable to assess its efficacy in people continually exposed to stressors.