Protective Effect of Silybum marianum and Silibinin on Endothelial Cells Submitted to High Glucose Concentration.
Planta Med. 2016 Aug 15. Epub 2016 Aug 15. PMID: 27525510
Olga M Palomino
Silybum marianum Gaertn. (Milk thistle) has been used since ancient times for the relief of liver diseases characterized by intense oxidative stress such as inflammatory liver disease and cirrhosis. As oxidative stress by hyperglycemia is involved in micro- and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes, our aim was to assess the protective effect of milk thistle seed extract against oxidative stress induced by a high glucose concentration on endothelial cells (EA.hy926 cells). High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis shows flavonolignans silychristin and silibinin A and B as major components. No cell toxicity was observed for concentrations up to 100 µg/mL of milk thistle extract for 24 h. Concentrations of 5-25 µg/mL of the extract were used to assess the protective effect on EA.hy926 cells treated with 30 mM glucose for 24 h. Oxidative damage by 30 mM glucose was shown as a significant decrease in reduced glutathione and a significant increase in protein carbonyls and antioxidant enzyme activities. S. marianum extract recovered reduced glutathione and balanced the elevated carbonyls and enzyme activity. Silibinin alone also recovered reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes. S. marianum protects endothelial cell againstoxidative damage by modulating antioxidant enzyme activity, reduced glutathione, and protein carbonyl levels.