Melatonin inhibits angiogenesis in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells by downregulation of VEGF.
Oncol Rep. 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14. PMID: 28259965
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) produced from tumor cells plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis and neovascularization of neuroblastoma. Inhibition of VEGF secretion by tumor cells, as well as VEGF-regulated signaling in endothelial cells, are important to reduce the angiogenesis and growth of neuroblastoma. Since melatonin has anti-angiogenic effects in tumor cell lines, the aim of the present study was to study melatonin modulation of the pro-angiogenic effects of VEGF in neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). We used co-cultures of SH-SY5Y and endothelial cells. VEGF expression and protein levels were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Endothelial cell migration was assessed by wound-healing assay and endothelial angiogenesis by a tube formation assay. Melatonin inhibited the pro-angiogenic effects of SH-SY5Y cells. The conditioned medium collected from the neuroblastoma cells was angiogenically active and stimulated proliferation, migration and tube formation in endothelial cells. This effect was significantly counteracted by the addition of either anti-VEGF or melatonin. Melatonin inhibited VEGF expression and secretion in SH-SY5Y cells, decreasing the levels of VEGF available for endothelial cells. Melatonin has anti-angiogenic effects at different steps of the angiogenic process in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, through the downregulation of VEGF.