Luteolin may serve as an effective anti-tumor drug in gastric cancer treatment. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Luteolin suppresses gastric cancer progression by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition via suppression of the Notch signaling pathway.
J Transl Med. 2017 Feb 27 ;15(1):52. Epub 2017 Feb 27. PMID: 28241766
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most malignant tumors and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Luteolin, a flavonoid present in many fruits and green plants, suppresses cancer progression. The effects of luteolin on GC cells and their underlying mechanisms remain unclear.
METHODS: Effects of luteolin on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were examined in vitro and in vivo by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), transwell assays, and flow cytometry, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blots were performed to evaluate Notch1 signaling and activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in GC cells treated with or without luteolin. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine proliferation and Notch1 expression in xenograft tumors.
RESULTS: Luteolin significantly inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner and promoted cell apoptosis. Luteolin reversed EMT by shrinking the cytoskeleton and by inducing the expression of epithelial biomarker E-cadherin and downregulating the mesenchymal biomarkers N-cadherin, vimentin and Snail. Furthermore, Notch1 signaling was inhibited by luteolin, and downregulation of Notch1 had similar effects as luteolin treatment on cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. In addition, luteolin suppressed tumor growth in vivo. A higher expression of Notch1 correlated with a poor overall survival and a poor time to first progression. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that activated Notch1 andβ-catenin formed a complex and regulated cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, GC progression was inhibited by luteolin through suppressing Notch1 signaling and reversing EMT, suggesting that luteolin may serve as an effective anti-tumor drug in GC treatment.