Low magnesium diet alters distribution of macroelements and trace elements in tissues and organs of female rats.
J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2017 Jan ;39:36-42. Epub 2016 Jul 12. PMID: 27908421
Anastasia A Zheltova
The aim of the present study was to assess whether dietary magnesium deficiency can alter distribution of macroelements and trace elements in different organs and tissues. Experiments were carried out on 12 adult female Wistar rats, which were fed either a diet with low Mg content (≤20mgkg(-1) of diet) (LMgD) or a diet with daily recommended Mg content (≈500mgkg(-1)) as control group (CG) for 70 days. On the 70th day of the experiment heart, aorta, femoral skeletal muscle, forebrain, cerebellum, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, ovaries, uterus, liver, kidneys, and spleen were taken for analysis of mineral content. Concentrations of Fe and Ca were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and levels of Na, K, Mg, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, I were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. On the 70th day, LMgD led to significant reduction of Mg level in red blood cells, plasma, aorta, uterus and thyroid gland compared to CG as well as resulted in significant decrease of Mg/Ca ratio in kidneys, spleen and ovaries. Contrary to this, an increase of Mg/Ca ratio was found in cerebellum of LMgD group. Significant decrease of K concentration was shown in aorta of LMgD animals compared to CG whereas myocardial K concentration was increased in LMgD group. Na level was two-fold higher in skeletal muscles of rats that received LMgD in comparison to CG (p=0.006). Increased concentrations of Fe in ovaries and uterus were found in LMgD. Mg restriction did not affect Zn concentration in any of tasted tissues. Se level was higher in spleen and lower in uterus of LMgD animals compared to CG. MgD was accompanied by increased level of Co in skeletal muscles and decreased its level in kidneys and uterus. LMgD feeding was associated with decreased concentrations of Ni in heart, thyroid gland, spleen, uterus and Co in heart, aorta, liver, kidneys, spleen and ovaries. The changes of Mg, K, Co content were accompanied by dramatic (10-fold) decrease of I concentration in aorta of LMgD animals. LMgD causes decrease of I content in ovaries and increase of I level in uterus vs CG. Thus, distribution of macroelements (Ca, Na, K) was weakly affected by Mg restriction that led to the most evident alterations of Co and Ni tissue levels. Moreover, mineral balance of uterus seems to be the most susceptible to low Mg intake. Hypomagnesaemia resulted in significant changes of 5 studied trace elements (Fe, Se, Cu, Ni and Co).