Lactoferrin is a potent inhibitor of Human Papillomavirus entry. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Lactoferrin inhibits human papillomavirus binding and uptake in vitro.
Antiviral Res. 2004 Oct;64(1):63-8. PMID: 15451180
Lactoferrin (LF), a member of the transferrin family, is a bi-globular protein secreted in milk, saliva, tears, seminal fluid, endocervix and vaginal secretions. LF is an important player in the defence against pathogenic microorganisms and has also been shown to have activity against several viruses including herpesvirus, adenovirus, rotavirus and poliovirus. The antiviral activity of LF is directed against the early steps of viral infection and the LF antiviral effect against herpesvirus is mediated through LF binding to the herpesvirus receptor heparan sulfate. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes genital warts and is a prerequisite for cervical cancer. HPV can also use heparan sulfate on the cell surface as a receptor. We studied the inhibition by LF on HPV entry by incubating HaCaT cells and HPV-16 virus-like particles (VLPs) with either human (HLF) or bovine lactoferrin (BLF). LF inhibited internalization of HPV-16 particles using CFDA-SE-labelled VLPs that only fluoresce after internalisation. By using a western blot assay we also found dose-dependent LF inhibition of HPV-16 VLP binding to the HaCaT cell surface. BLF was a more potent inhibitor of HPV entry than human LF. It was also clear that LF acted early in the HPV uptake process.