L-malate reverses oxidative stress and antioxidative defenses in liver and heart of aged rats.
Physiol Res. 2008;57(2):261-8. Epub 2007 Feb 8. PMID: 17298203
The intracellular levels of antioxidant and free radical scavenging enzymes are gradually altered during the aging process. An age-dependent increase of oxidative stress occurring throughout the lifetime is hypothesized to be the major cause of aging. The current study examined the effects of L-malate on oxidative stress and antioxidative defenses in the liver and heart of aged rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into four groups, each group consisting of 6 animals. Group Ia and Group IIa were young and aged control rats. Group Ib and Group IIb were young and aged rats treated with L-malate (210 mg/kg body weight per day). L-malate was orally administrated via intragastric canula for 30 days, then the rats were sacrificed and the liver and heart were removed to determine the oxidant production, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defenses of young and aged rats. Dietary L-malate reduced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation in the liver and heart of the aged rats. Accordingly, L-malate was found to enhance the antioxidative defense system with an increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and increased glutathione (GSH) levels in the liver of aged rats, a phenomenon not observed in the heart of aged rats. Our data indicate that oxidative stress was reversed and the antioxidative defense system was strengthened by dietary supplementation with L-malate.