Relationship Between Serum Alpha-Tocopherol and Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality.
Circ Res. 2019 Jun 21 ;125(1):29-40. Epub 2019 May 6. PMID: 31219752
RATIONALE: Although there has been a long-standing interest in the human health effects of vitamin E, a comprehensive analysis of the association between circulating vitamin E and long-term mortality has not been conducted.
OBJECTIVE: Determine whether serumα-tocopherol (the predominant form of vitamin E) is related to long-term overall and cause-specific mortality and elucidate the dose-response relationships with better quantification of the associations.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a biochemical analysis of 29 092 participants in the ATBC Study (Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention) that originally tested vitamin E and β-carotene supplementation. Serum α-tocopherol was measured at baseline using high-performance liquid chromatography, and during a 30-year follow-up we identified 23 787deaths, including deaths from cardiovascular disease (9867), cancer (7687), respiratory disease (2161), diabetes mellitus (119), injuries and accidents (1255), and other causes (2698). After adjusting for major risk factors, we found that men with higher serum α-tocopherol had significantly lowerall-cause mortality (hazard ratios=0.83, 0.79, 0.75, and 0.78 for quintile 2 (Q2)-Q5 versus Q1, respectively; P<0.0001), and significantly decreased mortality from cardiovascular disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, respiratory disease, and other causes, with risk reductions from 17% to 47% for the highest versus lowest quintile. Theα-tocopherol association with overall mortality was similar across subgroups of smoking intensity, years of smoking, alcohol consumption, trial supplementation, and duration of follow-up. The association was, however, significantly modified by baseline age and body mass index, with stronger inverseassociations for younger men and men with a lower body mass index ( P≤0.006).
CONCLUSIONS: In this long-term prospective cohort study, higher baseline serumα-tocopherol biochemical status was associated with lower risk of overall mortality and mortality from all major causes. Our data support the long-term health benefits of higher serum α-tocopherol for overall and chronic disease mortality and should be replicated in other more diverse populations.