[Influence of habitual chocolate consumption over the Mini-Mental State Examination in Spanish older adults].
Nutr Hosp. 2017 Jul 28 ;34(4):841-846. Epub 2017 Jul 28. PMID: 29095007
Edilbeto Orozco Arbelaez
BACKGROUND: There are associations described between dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and foods with a high content of polyphenols.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the infl uence of habitual chocolate consumption over the MMSE in Spanish older adults.
METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional study, using data of the follow-up of the Seniors-Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA) cohort. Habitual chocolate consumption in the last year was assessed with a computerized dietary history; differences between dark chocolate and milk chocolate were recorded. Chocolate intake was classified into the following categories: no consumption,<10 g/day, and≥ 10 g/day. Validated MMSE scores for Spain were obtained during an interview and different cutoff points were used to define ≤ 25, ≤ 24 and ≤ 23. Linear and logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted beta coefficients and odds ratios (OR).
RESULTS: Compared to non-consumers, participants with a habitual chocolate consumption of≥ 10 g/d had a better MMSE score (adjusted beta coefficient and 95% confidence interval: 0.26 (0.02-0.50; p trend = 0.05); for dark chocolate, the results were also statistically significant (0.48 [0.18-0.78]; p trend<0.001). Total chocolate consumption was not associated with higher likelihood of having MCI. However, dark chocolate consumption was associated with less likelihood of MCI (OR and 95%CI for MMSE≤ 25: 0.39 [0.20-0.77]; for MMSE ≤ 24: 0.26 [0.10-0.67]; and for MMSE ≤ 23: 0.25 [0.07-0.82]).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that habitual dark chocolate consumption might improve cognitive function among the older population.