Mediterranean diet improves endothelial function in patients with diabetes and prediabetes: A report from the CORDIOPREV study.
Atherosclerosis. 2017 Dec 8 ;269:50-56. Epub 2017 Dec 8. PMID: 29274507
Jose D Torres-Peña
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endothelial dysfunction (ED) plays a key role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Likewise, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major CVD risk factor. Therefore, our objective was to explore whether long-term consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) rich in olive oil or a low-fat diet (LF diet) was associated with an improvement in ED and whether the potential benefits were similar in patients with or without T2D in the CORDIOPREV clinical trial (NCT00924937).
METHODS: Endothelial function was measured in 805 participants who had completed follow-up ultrasound image studies, using ultrasonography of brachial artery to calculate flow mediated vasodilatation (FMD) before and after 1.5 years of intervention with a MedDiet [35% of calories from fat (22% monounsaturated) and 50% from carbohydrates] and LF diet [28% fat (12% monounsaturated) and 55% of calories from carbohydrates]. We categorized participants as patients with T2D, prediabetes, and without T2D according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria.
RESULTS: MedDiet increased FMD in patients with T2D [5.2 ± 0.4 at 1.5 years vs. 3.8 ± 0.4 at baseline; p=0.04] and prediabetes [4.9 ± 0.4 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4; p=0.04] and induced an improvement in FMD compared to LF diet in patients with diabetes [5.2 ± 0.4 (MedDiet) vs.3.7 ± 0.4 (LF diet); p=0.01]; whereas both diets maintained FMD stablein patients without diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS: Habitual consumption of a MedDiet rich in extra virgin olive oil improves endothelial function in patients with prediabetes and diabetes. This takes great importance given that diet must be the cornerstone of treatment of patients with diabetes at high cardiovascular risk.