Role of GSPE in improving early cerebral vascular damage by inhibition of Profilin-1 expression in a ouabain-induced hypertension model.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2018 Oct ;22(20):6999-7012. PMID: 30402867
OBJECTIVE: Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), as one of the most popular natural drug extracted from the grape, has been reported to improve endothelial function and arteriosclerosis. However, little is known about the influence of GSPE on hypertension and vascular remodeling. Profilin-1, an Actin-binding protein, is closely involved in the remodeling of large vessels in ouabain-induced hypertension. To date, there is no effective prevention or treatment in place for the high incidence of ischemic stroke associated with hypertension. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of GSPE via inhibition Profilin-1 in ischemic cerebral cortices of ouabain-hypertension rats and potentially provide a new target to prevent stroke associated with hypertension.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The blood pressure of male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was measured during a period of ouabain-induced hypertension. The expression of Profilin-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the cerebral cortex were determined by quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Histopathological and behavioral tests were also conducted.
RESULTS: Blood pressure elevation started at week 5 and reached clinical standards for hypertension at week 8. GSPE was proved to suppress Profilin-1 and VEGF levels through inhibition of Profilin-1-protein kinase B (AKT)-hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signal pathway and promote eNOS expression. Moreover, the histopathological and ethiological improvement was observed in GSPE over-expression and Profilin-1 inhibition groups.
CONCLUSIONS: We detected that GSPE could improve cerebral vascular damage through inhibiting Profilin-1 in an ouabain-induced hypertension model.