Grape seed and skin extract as an adjunct to xenical therapy reduces obesity, brain lipotoxicity and oxidative stress in high fat diet fed rats.
Obes Res Clin Pract. 2016 May 5. Epub 2016 May 5. PMID: 27161420
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a public health problem and a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) and Xenical (Xe) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and brain lipotoxicity.
METHOD: Rats were rendered obese and then treated either with vehicle (control) or GSSE (4g/kg bw) or Xe (1, 2, 4 or 8mg/kg bw) or (GSSE+Xe) and monitored for weight loss during 3 months. Animals were then sacrificed and their brain utilised for the evaluation of lipotoxicity-induced oxidative stress as well as the putative protection offered by GSSE and Xe treatment.
RESULTS: As expected HFD-induced body and adipose tissue weight gain, dyslipidemia, accumulation of lipid into the brain, a drop in adiponectin, increased oxidative stress and disruption of Mn, Ca(2+) and of related enzyme activities as glutamine synthetase and calpain. Xe alone exerted anti-obesity effect during the first 2 months and became inefficient thereafter. GSSE per se exhibited potent anti-obesity effect whereas the combination (GSSE+Xe), by acting in concert, was the most efficient against obesity and brain lipotoxicity. GSSE acted partially through its anti-oxidative properties, whereas Xe did not.
CONCLUSION: Combining GSSE with Xe improved outcomes in body weight and fat reduction as well as in brain lipotoxicity.