Glycosaminoglycans co-administration enhance insulin-like growth factor-I neuroprotective and neuroregenerative activity in traumatic and genetic models of motor neuron disease: a review.
Int J Dev Neurosci. 2000 Jul-Aug;18(4-5):339-46. PMID: 10817918
Pharmacological Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Odontoiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Milano, H. San Paolo, Via A. di Rudini' 8, 20142, Milano, Italy.
In this report it is shown how glycosaminoglycans and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) promote muscle reinnervation and prevent motor neuron death in experimental models of motor neuron disease. Such effect appears to be mediated by insulin-like growth factor-1. The glycosaminoglycan moiety of proteoglycans is a constituent of the basal lamina active on nerve regeneration by means of the interaction with laminin and with several growth factors. We have previously shown that supplementation by means of subcutaneous injections of glycosaminoglycans affects neuronal degeneration and regeneration. In this study we report that following neonatal lesion of the rat sciatic nerve, glycosaminoglycan treatment promoted extensor digitorum longus muscle reinnervation with consequent improvement of muscle morphology. In saline-treated rats, reinnervation was only partial and there was a marked muscle fibre atrophy, whereas, glycosaminoglycan treatment of lesioned rats increased IGF-I mRNA and protein in the reinnervated muscle, and IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 plasma levels. Similarly, treatment of lesioned rats with IGF-I promoted muscle reinnervation, and prevented muscle fibre atrophy, higher levels of IGF-I in the reinnervated muscle, of IGF-I, and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in plasma. In the wobbler mouse IGF-I and glycosaminoglycans alone promote only a partial motor neuron survival and the preservation of forelimb function decays after 3 weeks of treatment. However when glycosaminoglycans and insulin-like growth factor are administered together the motor neuron disease in the wobbler mouse is halted and there is no more loss of motor neurons.