Worldwide human daily intakes of bisphenol A (BPA) estimated from global urinary concentration data (2000-2016) and its risk analysis.
Environ Pollut. 2017 Jun 22 ;230:143-152. Epub 2017 Jun 22. PMID: 28649042
To evaluate BPA's potential risk to health, it is important to know human daily intake. This study describes a simple but effective method to estimate the levels of human BPA intake among four different populations based on urinary concentration data. Nationally, of the 30 countries examined, the top ten countries for adult intake were Italy, Sweden, Denmark, France, Cyprus, Australia, Israel, Ghana, Jamaica, and Belgium. When the urinary excretion sample size was large enough and over 1000, it was found that the national estimated BPA daily intakes in the child group among countries, showed a good linear relationship with those of their corresponding adult group. Except the infant group with limited data, the global estimated BPA daily intakes for children and pregnant women were 2 and 1.4 times that of the adult group. Although the national and global estimated BPA daily intakes were generally below the temporary tolerable daily intake (tTDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), but some normal individuals' daily intakes exceeded the tTDI.