Ginsenoside Rg1 protects human renal tubular epithelial cells from lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis and inflammation damage.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 2017 Dec 11 ;51(2):e6611. Epub 2017 Dec 11. PMID: 29267498
X J Ni
Ginsenoside Rg1, one of the most notable active components of Panax ginseng, has been widely reported to exert anti-inflammatory actions. This study aimed to reveal whether ginsenoside Rg1 also exhibits beneficial roles against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced apoptosis and inflammation in human renal tubular epithelial cells, and to evaluate the potential role of the component on tubulointerstitial nephritis treatment. HK-2 cells were treated with various doses of ginsenoside Rg1 (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200μM) in the absence or presence of 5 μg/mL LPS. Thereafter, CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, western blot, migration assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, and ELISA were carried out to respectively assess cell viability, apoptosis, migration, ROS activity, and the release of inflammatory cytokines. As a result, ginsenoside Rg1 protected HK-2 cells from LPS-induced injury, as cell viability was increased, cell apoptosis was decreased, and the release of MCP-1, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α was reduced. Ginsenoside Rg1 functioned to HK-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the 150 μM dose exhibited the most protective functions. Ginsenoside Rg1 had no significant impact on cell migration and ROS activity, while it alleviated LPS-induced ROS release and migration impairment. Furthermore, the down-regulations of p-PI3K, p-AKT, and up-regulations of PTEN, p-IκBα, p-p65, Bcl-3 induced by LPS were recovered to some extent after ginsenoside Rg1 treatment. In conclusion, ginsenoside Rg1 protects HK-2 cells against LPS-induced inflammation and apoptosis via activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and suppression of NF-κB pathway.