Ginger essential oil and fractions against Mycobacterium spp. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Ginger essential oil and fractions against Mycobacterium spp.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Jul 17:112095. Epub 2019 Jul 17. PMID: 31325601
Vanessa Pietrowski Baldin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zingiber officinale (ginger) is a perennial herbaceous plant native in tropical Asia and generally cultivated in most American tropical countries with widespread use in popular medicine. Ginger essential oil (GEO) has been reported to exhibit several biological activities, such as antimicrobial.
AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to determine the composition and the property of GEO and related fractions against Mtb and NTM, as well as their cytotoxicity.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: GEO was obtained by hydrodistillation and fractionation was performed. Chemical characterization of GEO and fractions were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The antimycobacterial activity was evaluated by resazurin microtiter assay plate and broth microdilution method for Mtb and NTM, respectively. The cytotoxicity in Vero cells was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay.
RESULTS: The analyses showed 63 compounds in the GEO sample, characterized by a high number of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. GEO fractionation rendered 11 fractions (FR1 to FR11). GEO and fractions minimum inhibitory concentration ranged from 31.25 to>250 μg/mL against Mtb and from 15.6 to>250 μg/mL against NTM. GEO showed better activity against NTM, M. chelonae, and M. abscessus sub. massiliense, than the semi-pure fractions. One fraction (FR5), containing γ-eudesmol as the main compound, was the most active against Mtb and NTM. The GEO and semi-pure fractions cytotoxicity assay showed CC63.3 μg/mL, and 36.3-312.5 μg/mL, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: In general, GEO showed a mix of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and a better antimycobacterial activity than the semi-pure fractions. Cytotoxic effects of GEO and its fractions should be better investigated.