Lipid raft cholesterol and genistein inhibit the cell viability of prostate cancer cells via the partial contribution of EGFR-Akt/p70S6k pathway and down-regulation of androgen receptor.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Feb 4. Epub 2010 Feb 4. PMID: 20138837
Department of Urology, Urological Science Institute, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 120-752, Seoul, Korea; Department of Food and Nutrition, Brain Korea 21 Project, Yonsei University, College of Human Ecology, 120-749, Seoul, Korea.
Soy isoflavones and cholesterol have been reported as dietary factors related to the incidence of prostate cancer. In the present study, we investigated whether cell survival could be suppressed by a combination of the dispersion of lipid raft microdomains and treatment with genistein, a well-known potential isoflavone, in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Cell viability was assayed by the property of reagent change upon reduction of resazurin to resorufin and apoptosis was evaluated by ethidium bromide/acridine orange (EB/AO) staining and PARP and caspase-3 expression. Signal transduction was investigated by immunoblot analysis. Cell viability decreased significantly more following successive double treatment with genistein and the cholesterol-lowering agent 2-hydroxyprophyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) than in response to either agent alone. Apoptotic cell staining and cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 appeared more clearly in double-treated cells than in those treated with genistein alone. In cell signaling, both HPCD and genistein decreased the protein expressions of pAkt as well as the androgen receptors stimulated by EGF and DHT, respectively, in concentration-dependent manners. This pattern was also present in protein levels of pAkt and the androgen receptor located in the lipid raft fraction. Furthermore, the phosphorylation cascade of Akt, GSK3beta and p70S6k was markedly inhibited by the combination treatment. These data suggest that prostate cancer cells could be effectively inhibited by combination treatment of cholesterol-lowering strategies and genistein. The mechanism is likely to be partially via both the EGFR-mediated Akt or p70S6k pathways and a down-regulation of androgen receptor in the lipid raft microdomain.