Abnormal bone architecture and biomechanical properties with near-lifetime treatment of rats with PTH.
Endocrinology. 2002 Sep;143(9):3230-42. PMID: 12193534
Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA. Sato_Masahiko@Lilly.Com
Skeletal effects are described for near-lifetime treatment of young, female rats with recombinant human PTH (1-34) (PTH). Rats (5-8 wk of age) were administered 0, 5, 30, or 75 microg/kg x d sc PTH for up to 2 yr, as part of an oncogenicity evaluation, which is required by regulatory agencies for potential chronic therapies. Proliferative lesions were observed in the skeleton as described in Vahle et al. (1 ); in this paper, we describe the quantitative bone data for this study. In the appendicular skeleton, PTH stimulated trabecular and endocortical mineral apposition to the near exclusion of marrow spaces at 5 microg/kg, with some periosteal apposition at 30 microg/kg, followed by considerable periosteal apposition and altered geometry at 75 microg/kg. Increased bone mass was observed for all treatment groups that substantially exceeded normal levels attained by vehicle controls and exceeded skeletal efficacy reported previously for similar doses in shorter-term studies. Dose-dependent increases in osteocalcin levels and a linear increase in wet weight of femora were observed for the entire treatment duration, suggesting nearly continuous PTH stimulation of osteoblasts and skeletal growth throughout life. Histology showed many osteocytes and prominent osteoblasts, but a conspicuous absence of osteoclasts. Morphometry showed a lack of distinction between trabecular and cortical bone. Biomechanics of vehicle controls showed that optimal mechanical integrity for the normal skeleton is observed at about 11 months of age. PTH greatly strengthened and stiffened vertebra and femora; however, the midshaft showed reduced toughness and increased brittleness with treatment, which was not the case for vertebra. Related studies of 6 and 9 months duration showed that the optimal duration for PTH skeletal efficacy was about 6 months in rats, based on toughness, strength, ultimate displacement, and architecture, especially for cortical bone. Therefore, treatment duration is an under appreciated aspect of PTH pharmacology; and PTH skeletal effects are a complex function of dose and duration. Comparative analyses showed that short-term treatment (6 months or less) is more advantageous than near-lifetime treatment, because PTH stimulates skeletal growth throughout life, resulting in abnormal architecture and untoward biomechanical properties in rats.