Flavonoids are capable of inhibiting insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in fat cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Inhibitory mechanisms of flavonoids on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in MC3T3-G2/PA6 adipose cells.
J Med Food. 2004;7(1):38-44. PMID: 18591783
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Kanazawa, Japan.
We assessed the effects of different classes of flavonoids on insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-D-[1-(3)H]glucose uptake by mouse MC3T3-G2/PA6 cells differentiated into mature adipose cells. Among the flavonoids examined, the flavones, apigenin and luteolin, the flavonols, kaempferol, quercetin and fisetin, an isoflavone, genistein, a flavanonol, silybin, and the flavanols, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and theaflavins, significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Key structural features of flavonoids for inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake are the B-ring 4'- or 3',4'-OH group and the C-ring C2-C3 double bond of the flavones and flavonols, the A-ring 5-OH of isoflavones, and the galloyl group of EGCG and theaflavins. Luteolin significantly inhibits insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptor-beta subunit (IR-beta), and apigenin, kaempferol, quercetin and fisetin, also tended to inhibit the IR-beta phosphorylation. On the other hand, isoflavones, flavanols or flavanonols did not affect insulin-stimulated IR-beta phosphorylation. Apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin and fisetin also appeared to inhibit insulin-stimulated activation of Akt, a pivotal downstream effector of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and suppressed insulin-dependent translocation of a glucose transporter, (GLUT)4, into the plasma membrane. Although genistein, silybin, EGCG and theaflavins had no effect on the insulin-stimulated activation of Akt, they blocked insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation. These results provide novel insights into the modulation by flavonoids of insulin's actions, including glucose uptake in adipocytes.