Effects of energy restriction and fish oil supplementation on renal guanidino levels and antioxidant defences in aged lupus-prone B/W mice.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Sep 1;70(5):700-13. PMID: 16022752
Energy restriction (ER) and dietary fish oil (FO) are known to reduce the severity of glomerulonephritis and increase the lifespan of lupus-prone (NZB x NZW) F1 (B/W) mice. In the present study, mice were fed either ad libitum or energy-restricted (a 40 % lower energy intake than the diet ad libitum), semi-purified diets containing 5 % maize oil or 5 % fish oil supplementation. To estimate the renal damage associated with oxidative stress, the total amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cyclooxygenase-derived ROS and levels of guanidino compounds were measured. Additionally, we assessed the putative action of ER and FO on several key antioxidant enzymes measured in the kidney post-mitochondrial fraction. Results showed that the age-related increase in creatinine level was significantly reduced by ER and FO in old mice. In contrast, arginine and guanidino acetic acid levels showed a decrease with age but were increased by ER and FO. The GSH:GSSG ratio showed a significant decrease with age, whereas ER and FO feeding prevented the decrease. The age-related decrease in antioxidant scavenging superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were all reversed by ER and FO. The moderately decreased glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activities with age were significantly increased by ER and FO. Furthermore, the increased total ROS and cyclooxygenase-derived ROS levels were effectively reduced by ER and FO. In conclusion, our data strongly indicate that ER and FO maintain antioxidant status and GSH:GSSG ratio, thereby protecting against renal deterioration from oxidative insults during ageing.