Juniperus rigida Sieb. extract inhibits inflammatory responses via attenuation of TRIF-dependent signaling and inflammasome activation.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 May 31 ;190:91-99. Epub 2016 May 31. PMID: 27260408
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Juniperus rigida Sieb. (J. rigida) is used for medicinal purposes in Asian countries to treat inflammation-related disorders, such as neuralgia, dropsy, and gout.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The anti-inflammatory effects of J. rigida extract (JR) and its underlying mechanisms were explored both in in vitro cell lines and in vivo metabolic disease models.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages were used to study the changes in inflammatory responses in vitro. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were used to study the regulatory effect of JR on inflammasome activation. The murine model for monosodium urate (MSU)-induced peritonitis and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes were employed to study the effect of JR on in vivo efficacy.
RESULTS: JR suppressed the MSU-induced in vivo inflammatory response by attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). In the in vitro study, JR suppressed IL-1β secretion via regulation of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) oligomerization, leading to the inhibition of inflammasome activation. JR also inhibited the LPS-stimulated release of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitory effects of JR were mediated through the regulation of the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway from JAK1/STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, JR showed inhibitory effects on HFD-induced type 2diabetes in a mouse model through the regulation of blood glucose and serum IL-1β.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that JR attenuates both LPS-stimulated and danger-signal-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages via regulation of the key inflammatory mechanisms, providing scientific support for its traditional use in the treatment of various inflammation-related metabolic disorders.