Epigenetic regulation of the human ATP2A3 gene promoter in gastric and colon cancer cell lines.
Mol Carcinog. 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18. PMID: 30657210
The knowledge about the role of calcium-regulated pathways in cancer cell growth and differentiation could be useful for the development of new therapeutic approaches to diminish its mortality. The ATP2A genes encode for SERCA pumps, which modulate cytosolic Caconcentration, regulating various cellular processes including cell growth. ATP2A3 gene transcriptional down-regulation has been reported in gastric and colon cancer, but there is still a lack of understanding about the epigenetic processes regulating its transcription. In this work, we report that butyrate, trichostatin A, and 5-azacytidine treatments increase SERCA3 expression, increased apoptosis, and decreased cell viability of the KATO-III gastric carcinoma cell line. We analyzed the methylation profile of the ATP2A3 gene promoter CpG island, finding clones with methylated status through -280 to -135 promoter region, harboring Sp1 and AP-2 binding sites, which could have a role in transcriptional repression. Post-translational modifications of histones show a major role in the ATP2A3 transcriptional regulation, and our results show histones marks linked to transcriptional repression associated with the -262 to -135 region, this repressive context changed to transcriptional permissive through SERCA3 re-expressing conditions. These results suggest that the nucleotide sequence from -280 to -135 position is an ATP2A3 epigenetic regulatory CpG region in KATO-III cells. Analyses of online-databases show a decreased SERCA3 expression in gastric and colon tumors, as well as overall survival results, showed that high SERCA3 expression could serve as a favorable prognostic marker for colon and gastric cancer patients.